When the Philippine-American war broke out, the United States had to concentrate its limited forces in the North. To prevent Moro from resisting its colonization of the Sulu Archipelago, the United States, represented by Brigadier General John C. Bates, entered into a contract with the Sultan of Sulu Jamal ul-Kiram, known as the Bates Treaty. The memo recommended a brand new treaty, similar to the British treaties in India, which recognize each Rajah as a semi-autonomous leader and use money as leverage. It had been reported that the sultan`s income was notoriously deficient and his desire for American protection for economic development. Bates used the USS Charleston, the first modern cruiser the Moros had seen to intimidate the sultan and his Datus, to accept the treaty. In fact, Bates never intended to ratify the treaty. As Bates later brought in, the agreement was only a temporary goal to buy time until the northern troops at Luzon were defeated. [5] [6] [7] The Moros were converted in the 15th and 16th centuries into the great missionary enlargement of Islam from India, although there were previous contacts with Arab missionaries in the 13th and 14th centuries. For more than 300 years, they fought against Spanish expeditions to conquer their territory and convert them to Christianity; In exchange, they launched devastating attacks on Christian settlements on the island of Visayas and Luzon. Nevertheless, the Spaniards managed to build small outposts in some remote areas of the western island of Mindanao, but emptied by centuries of moro resistance and reprisals, on July 22, 1878, they succeeded in obtaining a peace treaty with Sultan Jamal ul-Azam of Sulu.

The Kiram Bates Treaty, also known as the Bates Treaty, was a treaty signed by the United States of America and the Sultanate of Sulu during the Philippine-American War. [1] [2] The treaty worked to prevent the entry of the Sultanate of Sulu into the Philippo-American War, while the United States concentrated its troops in northern Luzon. Although it is referred to as a «treaty,» it has been described as an agreement that, in international practice, had a lower status, as U.S. law did not require ratification of an «agreement» by the Senate. NOTE: Before the American occupation, the sultanate of sulu had been an independent sovereignty for more than three hundred years; during the second part of the Spanish regime, the sultanate had partially abandoned the exercise of this sovereignty with regard to external relations and, to a lesser extent, the port of Job and the four other points occupied by Spanish military garrisons; temporal sovereignty, in part, but nevertheless de facto, existed and was recognized by the «Bates Treaty» in the term «the sultan`s government» to which the American authorities were obliged, by this agreement, to bring to justice «the crimes and crimes committed by Moros against Moros» (Article IX). The abrogation of the Treaty of Bates was based on issues other than the de jure sovereignty of the sultan, who subsequently did not lose or relinquish sovereignty over the internal affairs of the Sulu Archipelago government until he signed the agreement in Zamboanga on 22 March 1916 (sic` 1915). Instead of the Spanish treaty, the Bates Treaty included recognition of American sovereignty over Sulu and its dependencies, mutual respect between the United States and the Sultanate of Sulu, moro autonomy, non-interference in moro religion and customs, and a promise that «the United States will not sell the island of Jolo or another island in the Sulu Archipelago to a foreign nation without the agreement.» Sultan Jamal ul-Kiram and his Datus (tribal chiefs) are also expected to receive monthly payments in exchange for the U.S. flag and the granting of the U.S. right to occupy land on the islands.